Leavenworth is the largest city and county seat of Leavenworth County, in the state of Kansas and is located about 30 miles from Kansas City, Missouri, in the northeast portion of Kansas. It is situated on the west bank of the Missouri River along Highway 7 / 73 about 30 miles Northeast of Lawrence. The population was 35,420 at the 2000 census. Leavenworth, founded in 1854, was the first incorporated city in Kansas.
The city of Leavenworth grew up south of Fort Leavenworth, the oldest active Army post west of the Mississippi, which was established in 1827 by Colonel Henry Leavenworth. Leavenworth became the first city in Kansas when it was founded in 1854. Leavenworth's main industry is prisons. It is the site of a large federal prison and several smaller prisons, including the military's primary prison, the United States Disciplinary Barracks. Leavenworth is also home to a Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy (CMOP), an important part of an initiative by the Department of Veterans Affairs to provide mail order prescriptions to veterans using computerization at strategic locations throughout the United States.
The Early History of Leavenworth
by William G. Cutler (1883)
Leavenworth, a beautiful city of 19,000 inhabitants, is situated on the left bank of the Missouri River, being located upon a rolling site enclosed by a crescent of hills. The surrounding country is charming in the extreme, and merits the name bestowed upon it in the early days - "the garden of Kansas." A great attraction, and one which draws hundred of visitors to Leavenworth annually, is Fort Leavenworth. Within the city are elegant residences, costly churches, and large business blocks, press and pulpit, flourishing State and city institutions, large and prosperous manufactories, and good society, all giving evidence of metropolitan solidity and growth.
The very early facts connected with the town of Leavenworth have been presented in the sketch of the town association. Although by the latter part of September, 1854, the Herald and its proprietors were safely housed in the first building ever erected in Leavenworth; although Lewis N. Rees had built his little warehouse on the lot corner of Main and Delaware streets; although Uncle Keller was about to open his Leavenworth House; although Jerre Clark had erected a dwelling house - the first one in town - on Walnut street, the first families had not located in Leavenworth until those of Adam and George Fisher made their appearance.
Having brought some lumber with them from St. Louis they erected a shed in which lived until they could get a house built. Both of them did much for the early development of Leavenworth. Adam, especially, was one of the most energetic, capable and public spirited men that ever lived in the city. He at present resides in Washington, his brother George living on a farm near the city, on the Lawrence road. When they first settled in Leavenworth, in October, 1854, Mrs. Geo. Fisher carried with her the first baby which had ever blessed the community - her three months' old boy. But one of the earliest and most valuable institutions of Leavenworth, in the way of buildings, which commenced to flourish at this time, was the saw mill of Murphy & Scruggs, at the mouth of Three-Mills Creek, north side.
Capt. W. S. Murphy and Capt. Simeon Scruggs were partners and completed the mill in the fall of 1854, so that they were able to issue the following advertisement in October: "Murphy & Scruggs have erected and have in successful operation at Leavenworth, K. T., a large steam saw mill of the most approved model and with all the recent improvements. They are ready to fill bills for lumber of every description and in quantity at the shortest notice and on favorable terms."
This was the first saw mill not only in the county, but in the Territory. Although they made considerable money, the death of Capt. Murphy, and subsequent legal complications, so disarranged and consumed the partnership property that Capt. Scruggs lost nearly all his share in Leavenworth and retired to his farm near Kickapoo. But to return. The day before this advertisement appeared a very important occurrence took place for the town. This was the opening of the Leavenworth House. The steamer "Polar Star," from St. Louis, also brought up Gov. Reeder, of Easton, Pa., the first Governor of the Territory of Kansas.
He did not come to Leavenworth, at first, but stopped at the Fort, and undoubtedly he thus escaped being made a prisoner of war by the hospitable people of Weston. Gen. A. J. Isacks, of Alexandria, La., the newly appointed Attorney General of the Territory, also accompanied him, and went up to Weston. Although a Slave-state man, Gen. Isacks always counseled moderation, and was therefore almost as objectionable to the Pro-slavery party as though he had been openly a Free-state advocate. In the afternoon of October 7, a delegation of citizens waited upon the Governor at the Fort. A very respectable crowd had assembled at Capt. Hunt's quarters. Dr. Leib, late of Illinois, but then a citizen of Kansas, addressed the Governor, on behalf of the citizens of the Territory. The Governor replied in a neat and happy but brief speech, after which the champagne flowed generously.
Two of the United States Territorial Judges, Hon. Saunders W. Johnson, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Hon. Rush Elmore, of Montgomery, Ala., reached here on Tuesday, the 10th of October, 1854. Hon S. D. Lecompte, the Chief Justice, arrived at Leavenworth a short time after this date.
Locally, the most important of these events was the opening of the Leavenworth Hotel, and reference is made to such matters as the landing of these first Territorial dignitaries, merely to impress the fact that Leavenworth received the first of everything important into the Territory, all the way from printing-presses to governors. The next day after Governor Reeder and Attorney General Isacks had established themselves in Kansas, it seemed fitting to Elder W. C. Capels, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, that religious services should be held in Leavenworth.
This was done under the shade of a large tree, near what afterwards became the site of Plummer & North's flour mill. Thus early did the Church attempt to join hands with the State, in Kansas. Certainly Kansas needed all the prayers of the good elder and all of his co-laborers for the next two years, for all the appointment of Governor Reeder did not please the State of Missouri at all, and the State of Missouri felt that she had a lien upon the Territory of Kansas, and should be consulted before the Territory took any step, however small.
When Governor Reeder proposed to make a tour of inspection and ascertain for himself the popular feeling, so as to be able to conduct an administration understandingly, the Platte County Self-defensive Association were scandalized at his presumption. The tour occupied fourteen days, and the Governor's welcome was cordial and general, showing a desire to counteract any wrong impressions which he might have gained from the enemies of free Kansas, in Missouri. Escort parties were formed throughout the region which he visited, and Governor Reeder returned to Fort Leavenworth, believing that the citizens of Kansas were able to govern themselves, and that he should make it a point to see that they did.
He accordingly divided the Territory into Electoral Districts, and on November 10, 1854, issued his proclamation for the election of a Congressional Delegate on the 20th, to fill out the unexpired term. Missouri was aroused and her Pro-slavery leaders, headed by Gen. Atchison, resolved to posses that delegate, notwithstanding the position Governor Reeder had assumed. Said the General, in addressing a crowd in Platte City: "When you reside in one day's journey of the Territory, and when your peace, your quiet and your property depend upon your action, you can, without exertion, send 500 of your young men, who will vote in favor of your institutions."
The Blue Lodges and "Self-defense" Association took up the idea, so that a convention was held at Leavenworth, on the 15th. Fully 500 Missourians were there, determined to nominate a straight Pro-slavery candidate and to elect him afterwards. The actual residents of Leavenworth were only desirous of sending some one to Congress who would protect their claims to the Delaware Trust lands. The people of Missouri had "Pro-slavery" as their watchword; the citizens of Leavenworth, "Home-protection." Gen. J. W. Whitfield met every Pro-slavery requirement, and in a speech, promised to be true to the "Delaware Trust lands." But being a comparative stranger to the Kansas element, he saw that his chances for an election would be increased by not forcing his nomination upon the convention.
Strong endorsing resolutions were therefore passed, and a committee was appointed to wait upon Governor Reeder, at Fort Leavenworth. But the aims of that delegation and their manly treatment by Governor Reeder are so well known, and so well set forth in the general history, that it is unnecessary to go further into details. Suffice it to say that Governor Reeder most effectually backed the Missouri dictators for the time, and showed that he thoroughly understood them. If he had maintained his bold front during election day, there is no doubt but that his name would have stood higher in the roll of brave-principled men than it does; but a Congressional inquiry into the frauds perpetrated on the 29th instant shows that, had none but residents of Kansas voted, General Whitfield would have been elected. His only competitor in Leavenworth was Hon. Robert P. Flenneken, who came with Governor Reeder from Pennsylvania, with the express purpose of running as a Congressional delegate. He was a Free-state man, but there were doubts as to his being a safe man on the "Delaware Trust Lands" question. The following account of the election in Leavenworth is from the prolific pen of H. Miles Moore:
"On the evening of the 28th of November numbers crossed the Missouri River at Rialto Ferry, above Fort Leavenworth. Some went out to Pensenav's, on Kickapoo lands, and many of them came down to Leavenworth and camped near Three Mile Creek. They had their wagons, provisions and tents. The next morning the polls were opened at the window of a room on the east side of the Leavenworth House, northwest corner of Main and Delaware streets, where the Chicago and Rock Island railroad office now stands. There were but four or five houses in town at that time. The hotel was kept by Uncle George Keller and son-in-law, A. T. Kyle, and they continued to keep it for some time afterwards.
B. H. Twombly, C. M. Burgess and Smith were the Judges of the election. The voting went on very quietly all the forenoon. There was but little excitement. Our Missouri friends seemed to be doing most of the voting, as, in truth, the Free-state men took but little interest in the matter, they believing that the election of the delegate to Congress would have but little to do with settling the question of slavery. Judge Flenneken they knew little about. They looked upon him as a mere political adventurer. Gen. Whitfield had promised to do all he could to secure the Delaware settlers in their rights. We knew that from his position as Indian Agent he would, at least, have influence with the Indian Department at Washington, and, through his friends, with the President.
The Free-state men in this district either declined to vote or voted for Flenneken; or, as I believe, a majority of them voted for Whitfield, because of some of the reasons previously stated. After dinner, and till the polls closed, there was considerable of a crowd around the hotel - some quarreling, a little fighting (the result of bad whisky), but no particular disturbance. Gen. Whitfield, Pro-slavery candidate, received 222 votes in Leavenworth precinct; Judge Flenneken, Free-soil, 80, Total, 302. Whitfield's majority, 142. Judge Flenneken at once returned to Pennsylvania, after the result of the election was known, and Kansas knew him no more forever."
In March of this year (1855), another noted character arrived at Fort Leavenworth - Gen. John Calhoun, Surveyor General of Nebraska and Kansas, and afterwards the honorable President of the Lecompton Constitution Convention. It was understood by the Leavenworth town company that he would locate his office here, and they therefore turned over some shares of their stock to him. Probably to create the same belief, and certainly causing the same result as to town lots, Gen Calhoun pitched his tent at different places in both Territories, but finally brought up at Lecompton.
After the adjournment of the United States Court, March 19, 1855, the Pro-slavery party held a nominating convention and put into the field as candidates for the Territorial Council R. R. Reese and Capt. L. J. Eastin, of the Kansas Herald; for the assembly, Judge A. D. Payne and William G. Mathias, of Leavenworth, and H. D. McMeekin, of Salt Creek Valley. The candidates were generally members of the "Delaware Squatter Association," and pledged to protect the settlers upon the Trust Lands. The Free-state candidates were - For the Council, B. H. Twombly, of Leavenworth County, and A. J. Whitney, of Jefferson; Assembly, F. G. Braden, Samuel France, and F. Browning.
The election occurred on the 30th of March, and success to the Pro-slavery candidates was doubly assured by the wholesale importation or transportation of voters from Weston, Mo., via the "New Lucy" which came down the river bright and early, and never returned until the setting of the sun, at 5 o'clock P. M. Lewis N. Reese, Matthew France, and George B. Panton were inspectors of the election, and, of course, found everything "lovely" and legitimate. Just before the election a canvass of voters was made and it was found that by stretching a point, the district could poll 305 votes.
These inspectors of election received, as legitimate voters, 964 names, and the Pro-slavery people were allowed a majority of 800. To the credit of Gov. Reeder, however, be it recorded that he refused to grant certificates of election to the chosen champions of property-rights and political principles. He ordered a new election for May 22, but the same candidates returned.
A narrative of how the "law and order" party across the Missouri carried the day is here given, being written by an eye witness:
"The polls were to have been held at the Leavenworth Hotel, but Mr. Keller made some objection to it and they were removed by the judges to Benjamin Wood's saddler's, shop, on Cherokee street, near Third. Ropes were stretched from the window, where the votes were taken, out into the street, and all who desired to vote did so by passing between the ropes. The badge of recognition for those who belonged to the "law and order" party as they called themselves, was a badge of hemp in the button-hole of the coat, or on the hat, or around the waist. Everybody voted who applied to vote that day, except some Delaware Indians. The Wyandot Indians voted, about thirty of them. After the votes were counted Matthew France, one of the judges of the election, refused to sign the returns unless the words "lawful resident voters" were stricken out. This was done, after considerable discussion, and the judges all signed. Rees and Panton, two of the judges, refused to take the oath prescribed by the Governor before they entered upon their duties. They took another and different oath. France took the oath prescribed by the Governor and therefore declined to sign the returns unless the erasures were made as above."
William Phillips, a quiet young lawyer of Leavenworth, but a determined and enthusiastic Free-state man, prepared a protest, signed by himself and fourteen other indignant citizens in the Sixteenth election precinct, against the reception of the fraudulent returns. Similar protests were sent in from the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Eleventh precincts. But in his warmth for "fair play" Mr. Phillips made himself so conspicuous to the Pro-slavery party that he was plainly marked as an object upon which their vengeance must fall. That opportunity arrived before the time for holding the new election, which Mr. Phillips was so instrumental in bringing about.
In July, 1854, the Squatters' Association of Leavenworth County changed their place of meeting to the fort. The time of filing claims to the Trust Lands had been extended, and the nest of land speculators was increasing. By November the actual residents of Leavenworth became seriously alarmed lest, after all, they should be crowded out of house and home. On the 4th of that month a Squatters' meeting was accordingly held for the purpose of preventing non-residents from taking up land.
The Kansas-Delaware Squatter Association was then organized, with a court for the trial of contested cases - officers as follows: R. R. Reese, chief justice; A. Payne, associate justice, Stranger District; Alexander Russell, associate justice, Salt Creek District; Miles Shannon, marshal; G. D. Todd, deputy marshal; S. D. Pitcher, clerk and recorder of claims. Malcolm Clark was the first marshal of the meeting. The complaints grew louder that the association was protecting non-residents, and a meeting was called for the 30th of April, to take definite action.
That there was some good cause for this complaint no one can deny. In some instances, however, it undoubtedly originated with those who had no claims and desired to speculate in them, of by the rivals of Leavenworth, who would have enjoyed nothing better than to see a hot fight between the members of the Squatters' Association. Well, the meeting was held under the "old elm tree," corner of Cherokee street and Levee, and the feeling was high. Cole McCrea attempted to take part in the discussion and voting, when Mr. Clark requested him not to interfere, as his (McCrea's) claim was back of Fort Leavenworth, and not upon the Trust Lands; and informed him that no one but settlers upon the Delaware lands were to take part in these proceedings.
Mr. McCrea promised to keep quiet, but upon the announcement that some resolution was carried to which he objected, he pronounced the decision of the chair a fraud. This was too much for the hot Scotch blood of Mr. Clark, and he gave Mr. McCrea the lie. This lead to a fight, in which McCrea shot Clark so that he died in a few minutes. The murder jumped down the bank to the river's edge. Several shots were fired at him without effect; a rope was procured and McCrea would have been lynched had not S. D. Pitcher and a friend appeared upon the scene, both heavily armed, and carried him off in a Government hack to Fort Leavenworth. He soon escaped and left the Territory, but subsequently returned, and now quietly lives in Leavenworth. He was indicted but never prosecuted, as the shooting had been done under an aggravated case of assault. The feeling against McCrea, however, was very bitter, as Mr. Clark was one of the original members of the town association, high tempered but warm hearted, whole-souled and popular. He was buried in Weston.
The historian has nearly approached the time when vengeance was taken upon the innocent Free-state lawyer, William Phillips. He attended the meeting where Mr. Clark was killed, and seconded the efforts of Free-state men who had lately arrived to obtain claims upon the Trust Lands. The part that he took was modest enough, but his political record - the part he had taken in inducing Gov. Reeder to call a new election in Leavenworth precinct - and his general Free-state propensities, caused the charge to be brought against him in the coroner's inquest over Mr. Clark's body, that Phillips had handed McCrea the pistol with which he shot the deceased - that Phillips was accessory to the murder of Malcolm Clark.
Resolutions to that effect were passed at a public meeting held April 30 - upon the evening when the murder occurred. He was ordered to leave the Territory by two o'clock P. M., May 3, and a committee of ten was appointed to tell him so. Upon that date the meeting again assembled, and a vigilance committee was appointed. They found that Phillips had not left, threatened him with tar and feathers, and gave him another chance to leave the Territory. But although a quiet man, Mr. Phillips was a plucky one, and evidently thought that he had as much right to the Territory of Kansas as the vigilance committee. Although correct in his idea of the innate right of things, Mr. Phillips reckoned without his host, for on May 17 a dozen men, armed to the teeth, dragged him to the river, bundled him into a boat, carried him over the river to a point just below Weston, took him into a ware-house, stripped him to the waist, shaved one side of his head, tarred and feathered him, brought him "up town," rode him on a rail to the music of old pans and bells, put him on an auctioneer's block, and a dilapidated and ancient darkey bid him in himself for a cent.
The same disgraceful performance was gone through again - all but the auctioneering - before Mr. Phillips was allowed to return to Leavenworth. The next day the better class of Weston's citizens denounced the outrage in the strongest terms. In Leavenworth the Pro-slavery party held a public meeting and thanked the vigilance committee for what they had done to the abolitionist. They called Mr. Phillips "the moral pergurer," declared war against abolitionists, and resolved that "we severely condemn those Pro-slavery men who, from mercenary motives, are now calling upon the Pro-slavery party to 'submit' without further action."
But, though the political pot was boiling most furiously, and the bitter feeling toward Free-state men kept out many who, under a quieter state of affairs, would have settled in Leavenworth, yet the town was growing , and growing rapidly. From a population of 200 inhabitants in January, 1855, the town had increased to nearly 400 people by May of that year. Mechanics were settling in the community, a brickyard was established, and another sawmill was in operation on the opposite side of town - with a shingle and lath machine and a grist-mill attachment.
Houses were going up every week, and the demand was greater than the supply. Within six months, fully 100 buildings of various kinds had been erected, and were, by the spring of 1855, occupied by bona fide residents of Leavenworth. A postoffice had been established and opened by the Postmaster, Lewis N. Reese, in his store, corner of Delaware street and the Levee. This event occurred March 6, 1855. And business continued to increase, and new settlers to arrive, throughout the summer and fall. During the latter season, a fresh impetus was given to the town's growth by the selection of Leavenworth as the starting-point of the great Government Overland Transportation Company of Majors, Russell & Co.
They constructed stores, blacksmith shops, wagon and repair shops, and put a business life into the place which it would not have obtained in years of common private exertion. They employed annually more than 500 wagons, 7,500 head of cattle, and nearly 1,800 men. Freight transported across the plains, in 1855, to the amount of 8,000,000 pounds. At Leavenworth, the headquarters of this immense transportation business, the firm expended $15,000 for necessary buildings. As early as 1854, several Salt Lake and California traders had commenced starting their trains from Leavenworth, the outfitting points being Independence, Westport, Weston, and St. Joseph.
All of this business was now centered at Leavenworth. When there was added to this commercial advantage the fact that the Government was disbursing to soldiers and employes (sic) at the Fort, and for provisions and other necessities of a military establishment, $600,000 per annum, the secret of Leavenworth's early and wonderful growth was exposed. In October, 1855, one year from the first sale of lots, there was in Leavenworth a population of about 1,200 souls, with 500 voters. The concentration of Majors, Russell & Co.'s immense transportation business at this point, the settlement of many of his employes (sic) here the erection of many buildings and consequent encouragement of workmen, carried Leavenworth along a great stride. More hotel accommodations were imperatively demanded, and the "Planters' Hotel Company" was formed. About the 10th of November following, ground was broken for the new hotel, on the northeast corner of Main and Shawnee streets. It was completed during the season of 1856, and opened to guests in December. Leavenworth was also made the starting-point for the Kansas Stage Company.
The fall of 1855 was a period of great business activity for the young town, but the unfortunate civil disturbances which marked the year 1856, caused a greater depression - rather, a complete embargo upon commercial transactions. It is the purpose here to give but a running sketch of these troubles, in order that the general reader may understand how Leavenworth was connected with the bitter conflict which raged between the Pro-slavery and the Free-soil parties throughout the Territory.
When the Legislature of the Territory assembled at Pawnee in July, 1855, its first act was to oust the Free-state members, chosen at the second election ordered by Gov. Reeder. In defiance of the Governor's undoubted right to fix the temporary seat of government where he pleased, the Legislature adjourned to the Shawnee Manual Labor School, Johnson County, where the members would be nearer their Missouri friends. The next blow to the Free-state party was the removal of Gov. Reeder. The members thereof saw at once that organized resistance to the outrages being perpetrated upon them had become a necessity of existence.
Then came the Free-state conventions held at Lawrence, in June, and the calling of the Big Springs convention, in September. At this time the Free-state party of Kansas was organized, a State organization suggested, and war declared anew against the dictatorship of Missouri. From Leavenworth there were in attendance Marc J. Parrott and H. W. and D. A. Hook. Ex-Gov. Reeder was nominated as Delegate to Congress. Wilson Shannon had been appointed his successor in office. Gen. James H. Lane had taken the field for freedom of soil, freedom of speech and the State Constitution.
His first appearance in Leavenworth was upon the evening of September 18, and the vigor of his address upon the exciting topics of the day was eloquently seconded by the "silver tongues" Marc Parrott. Upon the 19th and 20th occurred the State Convention at Topeka, Mr. Parrott, Col. M. W. Delahay, S. N. Latta, H. Miles Moore, Richard Phelan being in attendance as delegates from Leavenworth. The results of that convention are of too broad a nature to be discussed in this local narrative. Suffice it to say that the delegates from Leavenworth took a leading part in the deliberations. A few days after the return of the delegates to Leavenworth Ex-Gov. Reeder arrived in that city, dined at the Leavenworth Hotel with his friends, and in the evening addressed a large crowd of his congressional supporters.
He advised them to take no part in the election fixed by the Pro-slavery Legislature for October 1 - to only recognize the proceedings of the Topeka Convention as valid, wherein the 9th of October was appointed as election day. His advice was generally heeded, so that Gen. Whitfield, his opponent, had it all his own way on October 1, while on October 9, Mr. Reeder was "unanimously elected." He received over 500 votes in Leavenworth. This day is also noted in political annals of Leavenworth County, as being the day upon which Delaware City opened her polls again upon the county seat question, and obtained a short-lived "glory" as the recognized seat of justice.
About a week after the Constitutional Convention at Topeka had adjourned, in pursuance of a call a large Pro-slavery meeting was held at Leavenworth. This was upon November 14, 1855, and was made the occasion for Gov. Shannon's first visit to the city. He was received by a committee of citizens, and entered the convention as a county delegate. The delegates assembled in Alexander's stone building, southwest corner of Main and Shawnee streets, and elected Gov. Shannon chairman of the convention. An adjournment was taken until the afternoon, when Gov. Shannon opened the meeting by denouncing the Topeka Constitution and the Free-state movement generally.
Gen. John Calhoun, Surveyor General of Kansas and Nebraska Territories, was also present and made a bitter Pro-slavery harangue. But the "law and order" meeting hooted down the only Free-state speaker who asked to be heard - Marc Parrott. A Free-state meeting was held a week afterwards. Politics were boiling, and the intense state of feeling was not cooled materially by the breaking out of the Wakarusa war. It seemed when Brig.-Gen. Eastin, of the Second Brigade of Kansas Militia and editor of the Kansas Herald, ordered that his troops concentrate at Leavenworth, on December 1, 1855, "to march at once to the scene of the rebellion" and to put down the 1,000 outlaws of Douglas County (armed to the teeth !) - that this point might be turned into a portentous seat of war.
In the diary of H. Miles Moore for December 1, however, is the following record: "Agreeable to the call of Brig-Gen. Eastin about one hundred assembled here. H. C. Dunn was elected Captain, and a few, about thirty or forty, enlisted. They are to start from Salt Creek Valley, to-morrow, at 9 o'clock A. M. No news from Lawrence." But the bulk of the invading army was, as usual, from Missouri. Until December, then Gov. Shannon ordered Gen. Richardson to disband his troops, the excitement did not materially decrease in Leavenworth. Political excitement, civil commotion, and a very severe winter, all combined to check business.
The winter of 1855-56 was the severest which had been experienced in this locality for a long term of years. The first snow of the season fell on the 22d of December, and continued accumulating until the 3d day of February, when it lay on the ground to the depth of two feet. On that day, too, the mercury indicated thirty degrees below zero, and for a long time previously had ranged from zero to twenty-two degrees below. The river had been frozen for seven weeks, and the ice was more than two feet thick.
The city of Leavenworth was honored in the State Convention, which assembled at Lawrence on December 22, by the choice of two of her citizens as candidates for high positions. Mark W. Delahay was chosen as the Congressional nominee, and H. Miles Moore as the candidate for Attorney General. The Pro-slavery element, however, was so strong in that community, that the more timid of the Free-state citizens hesitated about holding the election for State and county officers, on January 15. In fact, several days before the election was to take place, a few weak hearts met and resolved that one should not be held.
Mayor Slocum (Free-state) had resigned his office, and his course was followed by several members of the Council. The day before the Free-state election, which was fixed for January 15, De. J. H. Day, President of the Council, issued a municipal order forbidding it to take place. The document is still preserved as an evidence of the timidity of many members of the Free-state party. No polls were opened, but a capacious old stocking was presented to Free-state voters, and very generally patronized, so that the election took place, although, perhaps, not in "due form."
At Easton, an attack was made upon the polls, which were so vigorously defended by Free-state voters, commanded by Stephen Sparks, of Alexandria Township, that a Pro-slavery man (Mr. Cook) was mortally wounded. Several fights occurred, in which the Pro-slavery men were worsted. Among the Leavenworth people who attended the election at Easton, to see that the voting was fairly conducted, and who assisted in defending the polls, were Capt. R. P. Brown, member-elect of the Legislature, Henry J. Adams, senator-elect, J. C. Green, Joseph H. Byrd, and two or three others. The next morning they were returning in a wagon to Leavenworth, and when about half way to their destination they were met by a company of Kickapoo Rangers, under Capt. Martin, and Capt. Dunn's company from Leavenworth, who were on their way to Easton to avenge the treatment of their Pro-slavery friends. There were some fifty troops altogether.
The Leavenworth party were made prisoners, turned back to Easton, and confined in a store, where they were guarded for a time by the noisy, drunken crowd of soldiers. Their spite seemed to be particularly concentrated on Capt. Brown, many of them having known him and learned to fear him in Leavenworth. Finally they managed to get him into an adjoining building, and organized a court for his trial. Capt. Martin, finding it was impossible to control the men any longer, allowed all except Capt. Brown and Mr. Byrd, to escape. The latter was being examined as a witness in the "trial." While this mock trial was going on inside, the more drunken wretches without became impatient, broke in the door, and, led by Robert Gibson, broke up the "court."
Gibson then rushed upon Brown, and struck him in the head with a hatchet, before anyone could prevent the brutal assault. Shortly afterward his almost lifeless body was carried in a wagon to Cole McCrea's home and thrown into his house. Capt. Brown's poor wife and several neighbors did all they could to relieve his sufferings, but he died in a few hours afterwards, and was buried on Pilot Knob the next day. Capt. Brown was a brave, noble man, and his murder was one of the most heartless of any perpetuated during these cold-blooded, hot-blooded times.
The story of his brutal treatment is told by Cole McCrea, a neighbor of Capt. Brown's, and whose wife was one of several kind friends who attempted to revive the injured man:
"They then (after the assault) tossed Brown into a lumber wagon and drove on to Merrill Smith's saloon on Salt Creek. The rough wagon, driven over hard, frozen ground, made the wounded man groan, when the ruffian kicked him in the face, neck and breast to make him keep still. Eli Moore, putting his foot to his cheek, twisted his neck so as to put a tobacco spit into is wound, saying that would ease any d____d abolitionist. Thus abused and kept in the bed of the wagon some seven hours, they drove over to my cabin. Coming up so that the tail end of the wagon would come opposite my door, they flung it open, saying 'Here is Brown!' there being no one at the house but our wives and infant children, Charley Dunn and Pap Taylor undertook to bring him into the house. They first dragged him out of the wagon by the feet, letting his body fall at full length upon the hard, frozen ground. The thud which the husband's body gage against the hard earth echoed in the faithful, loving heart of the wife, and she fell to the floor. Returning consciousness only to find her a helpless maniac, and she so continued till my wife delivered her over to her brother at Chicago, who had come from Cass County, Mich., to receive her. The two ruffians then dragged Brown into the cabin as far as his knees. They then staggered and stumbled through the cabin, upsetting the water bucket. My wife could not drag the dying man further in, or close the door, that 18th of January night, one of the coldest ever known in Kansas. The helpless women and children and dying man were left exposed till David Brown, a Tennessean, came over from the adjoining claim, Capt. Brown died about three hours after being brought home."
As the words "Pilot Knob" will frequently occur in this history in other connections than as being the last resting place of brave Capt. Brown, it may be well to digress here and give the truth of its origin. "Pilot Knob" is situated about one mile and a half south west of the business part of Leavenworth. It was so named by the Indians who occupied this country. There used to be a huge pile of stone on the extreme south point of the Knob. There were similar mounds of stone on all the high points between the city and the ford of the Kaw River at Lawrence - the Indian trail over which the Sac and Fox, Miami, and other tribes of Indians in the south and southwestern part of the Territory passed in their visit to Fort Leavenworth and Weston. These stone mounds were put up by them as guides. Most of them have since been taken down by land owners. Pilot Knob was one of the most prominent of these stone guides.
Thomas A. Minard, of Easton, at whose house the election was held which was the prime cause of Capt. Brown's murder, narrowly escaped injury at the hands of a mob a few days afterwards. He barricaded his doors, however, and lived to be elected Speaker of the Free-state Assembly which convened on the 4th of March. Mayor Murphy was inaugurated on the 21st, and as he was one of the strong "law and order" kind, in view of the subsequent events, his address to the Council is a curiosity:
"Gentlemen," (he said) "we are called together here merely as guardians of the interests of our fellow citizens, and it behooves us to cause wise and judicious counsels to prevail among us, in order that we may well protect those interests; and while it is my duty, it will at the same time be by pleasure to co-operate with you in the adoption of every measure that shall tend to advance the interests and promote the happiness and prosperity of our young and growing city. The obligations of the solemn oath you have just heard administered to me shall be kept steadily in view, and no effort on my part shall be wanting, faithfully to comply therewith. By virtue of the office I now hold I am a conservator of the peace, and in my daily intercourse with my fellow citizens I shall endeavor to impress upon them the necessity of cultivating feelings of amity and good will one toward another, believing that thereby this part of my duty will be made light. It is by a faithful execution of laws, tempered with that justice and mercy which the real spirit of the law requires, that we must expect as a community to get along harmoniously and prosperously; and in the discharge of my duties I feel assured that their love for order and good government will cause them to curb passion, respect the laws, and obey the legally constituted authorities."
The 4th of March seemed to have been marked out by Gen. Atchison and other Pro-slavery leaders as the one day destined to be "big with events," when the hordes from Missouri should march through the Territory of Kansas to Topeka, sweeping away from their path every vestige of "Free-soilism." But the Convention met, the new State officers were sworn in, and resolutions were passed upon the cruel murder of Capt. Brown. Two days after the assembling of the Convention word reached Topeka of the plan by which President Pierce proposed to punish the members of the new State government - a government erected in opposition to his territorial pet.
From this date commenced a general and unrelenting persecution of Free-state men. In Lawrence, in April, the unprincipled tool of the Pro-slavery party being the ubiquitous Sheriff Jones, after some smaller fish had been successfully "hooked," an attempt was made upon the person of Ex-Gov. Reeder, who was before the Congressional Committee investigating his claims to a seat in Congress, and also examining into the state of the country. The Governor had made his fortune escape down the Missouri River before Judge Lecompte, for the United States District Court, sitting at Delaware City, commenced to grind out his batch of indictments against the Free-state officers.
In May, Gov. Robinson, the head of the Free-state organization, was arrested at Lexington, Mo., on the pretext that he was "fleeing from an indictment." The indictment for treason had not yet been found against him, but within a week this was accomplished. He was brought to Leavenworth on the 24th, and during the week that he remained in Leavenworth at McCarty's Hotel, the most astute would not have risked an opinion from day to day, as to whether he would be rescued by his Free-state friends or be hanged by a Pro-slavery mod. Rumors were a broad of attempts to be made by both parties, while some believed, as proved to be the case, that nothing rash would be attempted by either.
To some extent the Pro-slavery officials who had him in charge considered that their honor was staked upon his safety. Much of the time, therefore, Gen. Richardson stayed in the same room with him, while Judge Lecompte guarded his door like a faithful, common sentinel. Upon orders having been received from Gov. Shannon he was removed to Lecompton, the Territorial capital, on June 1. The Investigating Committee, or at least Messrs. William A. Howard, of Michigan, and John Sherman, of Ohio, were conducting themselves in a manner which did not meet with the approval of Gen. Whitfield's friends. On May 26 they found upon the committee room door the following card, addressed to them:
SIRS: With feelings of surprise and disgust we have been noticing the unjust manner in which you have been conducting this investigation. We wish to inform you that you can no longer sit in this place. We therefore request you to alter your obnoxious course, in order to avoid consequences which may otherwise follow.
(In behalf of the citizens.)
H. Miles Moore, the attorney of ex-Gov. Reeder, was a target for much of this bitter and dangerous feeling. The next day, after the above notice was posted, a squad of Kickapoo Rangers filed into the room with muskets. Messrs. Sherman, Howard, and Moore, however, were not men to be easily frightened, and the Rangers soon retired, leaving their Lieutenant behind to warn Mr. Moore that he was making himself too prominent in the investigation for his own safety. The next day, at noon, as Mr. Moore and Marc Parrott were sitting together in their law office, the former being engaged in conversation with John Sherman, the two were arrested and marched down Delaware and Second streets to the warehouse of Russell, Major & Waddell, on Cherokee street.
The squad of soldiers, under command of Col W. D. Wilkes, of South Carolina, then marched to the Leavenworth Hotel, leaving a strong guard behind, and arrested Robert Riddel. Other arrests followed. In the afternoon Mr. Parrott was taken before the investigating committee as a witness, and Gen. Whitfield and Judge Halderman ran him off to Leavenworth under the promise that he should be banished the Territory. Mr. Moore, Mr. Conway, clerk of the Investigating Committee, and George Weibling, the Lawrence mail contractor, were kept in confinement, with the crowd howling outside, demanding that the prisoners should be hung.
The Pro-slavery fanatics considered Mr. Moore as about their worst enemy, as he had formerly been an owner of slaves himself. But the lengths to which his party had gone within the past few years had driven him into the ranks of the Free-state party. His former friends could not appreciate his true position, and the more bitter partisans looked upon him as a traitor to their cause. It seemed, surely, as if his last day had come, not withstanding his guards were faithfully performing their part.
The mob howled around the warehouse all night. The next day (May 29) Mr. Moore's two companions were discharged upon promising that they would leave the Territory. Quite early in the morning a rush was made upon the only remaining prisoner, a rope found in the warehouse placed over a joist, and an attempt was made, under the leadership of Capt. T. A. Scott, brother-in-law of Col. A. J. Isacks (the Attorney General) to lynch Mr. Moore. The attempt would have been successful had not he been rescued by Col. Clarkson, the commander of the city militia.
Although no further personal demonstrations were made against Mr. Moore or the committee, Mayor Murphy deemed it advisable to call a meeting at Reese & Keith's warehouse, on May 31. All citizens were called who were in favor of "sustaining and enforcing the laws of the Territory of Kansas and the Constitution and Union of the United States, and of restoring peace and quiet in the community." At the meeting a vigilance committee was appointed, and a very bitter spirit evinced toward the investigating committee. The gathering was dissolved in confusion, however, by the temerity of Rev. H. P. Johnson, who dared to offer a resolution that "we believe there are a good many Free-state men in the Territory who are good , true and law-abiding men, and would aid in enforcing the laws of the Territory."
The Free-state men of Leavenworth were "not out of the woods" yet, by any means, as is evident when it is told that Mr. Moore was arrested, June 4, upon a bench warrant from Judge Lecompte's court, charged with assuming the office of Attorney General of Kansas. He was taken before J. A. Halderman, Judge of the Probate Court, and admitted to bail in the sum of $1,000, to appear before the Hon. Samuel D. Lecompte, on the third Monday of August at Delaware. In the meantime the vigilance committee, appointed by the Mayor, which was to "restore peace and quiet in the community" had been increased to fifty, and on June 5, (the day after Mr. Moore's arrest, by "due process of law,") they gave Rev. J. B. McAbee and Senator H. J. Adams notice to quit the Territory by the first boat. A few days after, William T. Marvin and George W. Witherell were arrested for being judges of election during the previous spring. The proclamation of Gov. Shannon, ordering the disbanding of all committees organized for the purpose of driving settlers from the Territory had the effect of breaking up the vigilance committee, so that the Free-state men were protected from that danger.
The sacking of Lawrence in May, followed by the John Brown war, the published reports of the investigating committee and Gen. Whitfield's rage, the marching of Whitfield's troops into Kansas, the report of Gen. Lane's advance from the North with his Abolition army, etc., etc., all served to keep alive the hot fires of political feeling, and drew on the ruffian element to the commission of bloody crimes. Leavenworth was not exempt. In fact one of the most heathenish (because so coolly premeditated, with no provocation whatever) occurred near the south line of he city on August 19.
A Missouri ruffian named Fuget had made a bet of six dollars against a pair of boots, that in less than two hours he would bring Leavenworth an Abolitionist's scalp. Starting out on his inhuman errand he met a young man named Hoppe, who had just arrived from Illinois a few day ago, and was returning from Lawrence, where he had taken his wife to visit a sister. He was shot dead from his carriage by Fuget, who scalped his victim and left him in the road. He then carried the reeking scalp with him to the house of his cousin, Mrs. Todd, situated on the Lawrence road, about a mile from where the crime was committed wrapped up its shocking evidence in a newspaper and fled to Missouri.
In May, 1857, he was arrested in Leavenworth, tried for murder and acquitted! Fuget's act was applauded by Capt. Fred. Emory and his gang of Regulators, but an innocent German, who expressed horror at the spectacle was shot himself. The chief parties to this terrible affair were comparatively unknown, and in case is merely adduced to show what must have been the feeling in the breasts of the lower class of Pro-slavery men towards all Abolitionists. The ruffians of the Pro-slavery party had sworn it, that no Free-state man should travel on the road between Leavenworth and Lawrence.
Capt. A. B. Miller and his gang therefore kept a close watch over the Devil's Highway, as they might have called it. On the 27th of August, Rev. Mr. Nute, the Unitarian minister of Lawrence, Mrs. Hoppe, his sister-in-law, wife of the murdered man, and John Wilder, a merchant of Lawrence, started with teams to obtain provisions at Leavenworth. When near the city they were all taken prisoners by Emory's gang. Mrs. Hoppe was released and got passage down the river, and thus disappeared from the scene of her husband's heartless death.
The others were held prisoners of war, until released by order of Gov. Geary. A reign of terror had again commenced in Leavenworth. Armed bodies of men were stationed at all points along the river and turned every boat back which brought suspected Free-state emigrants. Bands of ruffians were also organized, principally in Missouri, to drive away actual settlers guilty of Free-state opinions. Among the most noted of these bands was that which ravaged Leavenworth under the command of Captain Frederick Emory, a United States mail contractor.
In the name of "law and order" they entered the houses and stores of Free-state people and drove them into the street, without regard to age, sex or previous condition. On the Sunday night preceding the election for Mayor, (September 1,) about forty men went through the streets of the city crying out for all who would not take up arms to enforce the territorial laws to leave Leavenworth immediately or suffer the consequences. The next day, after committing many outrages, the Regulators, under Emory, approached the house of William Phillips, the lawyer, who in May, 1855, had been tarred and feathered, ridden on a rail and subjected to other indignities in the streets of Weston.
Says one account of the outrage: "Phillips, supposing he was to be driven out of house and home, resolved not to submit to the indignity, and bravely took the initiative himself. Standing boldly out upon the veranda of his house, when the ruffians drew up in front of it, he fired upon them, killing two of their number. They instantly directed a volley of bullets at him and the house, and Phillips fell pierced in a dozen places, the door casing being literally riddled with the leaden storm. He expired almost instantly in the presence of his wife and another lady. His brother, who was with him, had his arm so badly broken with bullets that he was compelled to submit to an amputation. Fifty of the Free-state prisoners were then driven aboard the "Polar Star," bound for St. Louis. On the next day a hundred more were embarked on board the steamer "Emma." For two days, September and 2, Emory and his 800 Regulators paraded the streets of Leavenworth, and having collected a sufficient batch of Free-state criminals, shipped them out of the Territory to St. Louis, without any provisions whatever, and having previously confiscated all their goods. Many citizens fled from the city, some escaping to the fort and placing themselves under the protection of the United States.
The arrival of the new appointee, Gov. Geary, was most opportune, as Capt. Emory and his gang were holding high carnival in and around Leavenworth. They had just captured three Free-state settlers and confiscated their property when the Governor arrived at Fort Leavenworth, on September 9, and this, notwithstanding the emigrants were under the protection of a United States officer, Capt. Emory was captured, his prisoners set at liberty, and was in turn released himself. The Governor left Leavenworth on the 10th for Lecompton.
The arrival of Gov. Geary in the Territory, may be said to mark the commencement of the end of the terrible conflict which had raged in Kansas for two years. Upon the day of his arrival, he addressed a letter to Hon. Wm. L. Marcy, in which he says:
"The town of Leavenworth is now in the hands of armed bodies of men who, having been enrolled as militia, perpetrated outrages of the most atrocious character, under shadow of authority from the Territorial Government. Within a few days these men have robbed and driven from their homes unoffending citizens; have fired upon and killed others in their own dwellings, and stolen horses and property, under the pretense of employing them in the public service. They have seized persons who have committed no offense; and, after stripping them of all valuables, placed them on steamers and sent them out of the Territory. Some of these bands, who have thus shamefully violated their rights and privileges, and shockingly misused and abused the oldest inhabitants of the Territory, who had settled here with their wives and children, are strangers from distant States, who have no interest in, nor care for, the welfare of Kansas, and contemplate remaining here only so long as opportunities for mischief and plunder exist.
By October of 1856, peace virtually reigned in Leavenworth, the "Regulators" of this city being the last to abandon their organization, and only then after they had received an unmistakable order from the Governor, addressed, on the 1st of that month, to Mayor Murphy. It reads as follows:
"I regret to inform you that since the receipt of your letter, I have received numerous complaints from persons claiming to be your citizens. It is said there exists in your city an irresponsible body of persons, unknown to the law, calling themselves 'Regulators;' that these persons prowl about your streets at night, and warn peaceable citizens 'to leave the Territory, never to return, or they may be removed when least expected.'
"This thing, Mr. Mayor, will never do, and can not be tolerated for a single moment. These 'Regulators' must be disband, and leave the government of the city to yourself and the authorities known to the law."
The Mayor then issued his proclamation, declaring that he would rigidly enforce the law against the outlaws, and the excesses were checked.
Another murder because of political opinions, and one which caused great excitement, was the killing of James T. Lyle, City Recorder, by William Haller. Mr. Lyle, a Kentuckian by birth and a bitter Pro-slavery man, had been in the front rank of those who persecuted those of Free-state proclivities. Haller himself had been obliged at one time to flee the Territory with his family, and there was, undoubtedly, a bitterness of long growth between them. The latter was from Ohio, a watchmaker by trade, industrious and respected, but deep rooted in his opinions, having been the means of saving the lives of several men who thought as he did and were not afraid to express their sentiments.
At the election, which occurred June 29, 1857, a number of voters were gathered at the First Ward polls, and Eli Moore offered a Pro-slavery ballot to a German, who indignantly tore it up. This raised a commotion and Haller took the part of his political friend, the German. This angered Lyle; Words between him and Haller lead to a fight, in which Lyle was stabbed in the back. He died from the effects of the wound. Haller was arrested, and a Pro-slavery mob threatened to lynch him. He was protected by his friends, however, and held for trial upon a charge of murder, being confined at Fort Leavenworth. In August he escaped.
But organized oppression and cruelty because of political opinions were really dispelled in Leavenworth. The city, however, was still infested by many Missouri roughs and disreputable characters, and the citizens saw that some powerful remedy was necessary to keep them in check. An occasion offered in July, 1857, when James Stephens was foully murdered and robbed of $108 near the river. His murderers, John C. Quarles and W. M. Bayes, were taken from the jail and lynched on an old elm tree near the sawmill, despite the protestations of Judge Lecompte and other law-abiding citizens. He was threatened with personal violence himself, as also was the United States Marshal, who got on a box before the mob of over a thousand people and attempted to pacify them.
The City Marshal and police were hustled out of the way. The crowd battered down the door of the Jail with a stick of timber, dragged Quarles forth and hung him to a tree. The noose was not properly tightened and for a moment the man managed to grasp the rope with his hands, but a heavy-set, brutal ruffian caught him by the feet, threw his whole weight upon him and strangled his victim to death. When the mob returned for Bayes there was more protesting by authorities, and Mrs. Bayes, fought them off line and infuriated beast, as she was.
Bayes, however, followed in the steps of Quarles, except that he allowed his hands to be tied behind him and was swung off into eternity in a less horrible manner. William Knighten, a weak-minded young man, and Bill Woods, a counterfeiter, and alleged accomplices in the murder, were taken to Delaware City, tried, and finally discharged. This lynching affair seemed to check the reckless spirit of crime, which heretofore pervaded the city, and thereafter Leavenworth was more free from lawlessness than most of the other towns.
The fire of July 15, 1858, was a blow to Leavenworth. It originated in the theater, corner of Third and Delaware streets, over the Market House. After enveloping several buildings on that side of the street, it leaped over to Dr. Park's drug store, on Delaware street, sweeping down both sides of the that street for some distance. Had it not been for the heroic efforts of the citizens, seconded by a tremendous rainstorm, almost the whole city might have been destroyed. As it was, a strong south wind was blowing, and in about an hour over $200,000 worth of property was destroyed, upon which there was an insurance of not more than fifteen per cent. Thirty-two stores were burned, and much property not destroyed was stolen. It was a gloomy time for Leavenworth, and many persons departed, never to return. Many of those who remained were in the most destitute circumstances.
In January, 1859, considerable commotion was occasioned by the kidnapping of Charley Fisher, an alleged fugitive slave from Louisiana. He had resided in Leavenworth for some time, conducting himself as a quiet, intelligent citizen. On the 13th of that month, Frank Campbell, Deputy United States Marshal, came to Planters House and attempted to force Mr. Smith, the landlord, to allow him admittance, that he might take off Fisher, employed at the hotel, claiming that he was a fugitive slave.
Being refused, he obtained a ladder, and putting his head through the window, threatened to blow Mr. Smith's brains out. The door was opened, and he, in company with Frank Harrison, handcuffed the negro. The assistance of another man was also obtained and Fisher was finally taken across the Missouri River in a boat. While his captors were sleeping, he escaped to the Kansas side, about four miles below Leavenworth, and filed off the handcuffs. Warrants were issued for the arrest of his kidnappers, who, after eluding the officers for some days, were examined before Recorder Adams, in February, and all three bound over in $2,000 bonds for trial before G. W. Gardiner, Probate Judge.
During the preliminary examination there appeared on Hutchinson, who claimed to have bought Fisher as a Louisiana slave, in 1854, giving him a written permit to hire his own time on any boat running on the Mississippi River between New Orleans and St. Louis, and on any boat on the Missouri River. Fisher was to make a traveling barber-shop of himself, and pay Hutchinson $10 a week for the privilege, Fisher himself to receive the balance. It was in this capacity that he traveled through portions of Illinois, and finally came to Kansas. While Fisher was attending the trial before Judge Gardiner, Hutchinson sought to have him arrested as a fugitive slave, under a writ issued by Judge Lecompte, but the court refused.
In protecting him from arrest, the City Marshal kept him in such close confinement that at one time he was guarded by a force of 400 men, and seemed to be in fact a prisoner. In March, the three defendants were taken before Judge Lecompte on a writ of habeas corpus, and found guilty of the crime of kidnapping a slave but as the law did not provide for punishing such an offense, they were discharged. Fisher was brought back to the city, and was rescued from his strong guard by a party of citizens who believed him to be a free man. He escaped, and is subsequently heard of as a State Senator from Mississippi. Both the city and judge Gardiner were sued in the Federal Court for $1,000 damages each, for hindering an alleged master in the capture of his slave. The cases never came to trial.
Among the "first things" which have not naturally developed in the course of this narrative, are those given below:
The first birth which occurred at Leavenworth was that of Cora Leavenworth Kyle, daughter of A. T. Kyle, and granddaughter of "Uncle" George Keller, at the Leavenworth Hotel, December 6, 1854.
The first death of a resident occurred on the same day - Tuesday, December 6, 1854. Stephen T. Noble was drowned near Platte City landing, above the fort, while on his way in a boat from Weston to this city. The boat was loaded with lath, struck a snag, and Mr. Noble and a young man with him Joseph O'Neil, were drowned before assistance could reach them from the fort.
John Grund was married to Miss Eliza A. Tennell January 13, 1856, and their son, born January 14, 1857, was the first child born of Leavenworth parents.
The first grist mill in the vicinity of Leavenworth was put in operation at East Leavenworth, or "Slab Town," in January, 1855, by Messrs. Panton & Yohe. It was a combined saw and grist mill - a small concern, valued at $4,000. The proprietors offered to grind corn on the most reasonable terms.
George Russell was the first tinsmith and hardware dealer. His shop was on Main street.
F. & W. Engelman were among the very first grocers, if not the first, who opened a store devoted strictly to this branch of business.
In February, 1855, Julius Trumel opened the first regular barber shop in Leavenworth, being located near the corner of Cherokee and Water streets.
Lewis N. Rees (also Postmaster), established the first warehouse and general store in the fall of 1854.
Wm. Phillips, Col. Dave Johnson, John I. Moore, B. H. Twombly and Cole McCrea were among the very earliest of the attorneys who put out their shingles in Leavenworth. Judge John A. Halderman came soon after from Lexington, Ky. He was a man of note, and is at present consul to Siam.
Dr. Charles Leib, physician, had an office on the levee, "in the big tent north of the big elm tree," as early as September, 1854, and was probably the first doctor who permanently located here. About the same time came Dr. J. H. Day.
Samuel M. Lyon was the first house-joiner and carpenter, settling also during that month.
In October, 1854, John J. Bentz established the first wholesale grocery - located on Water street. M. France & Co, also opened up a line of drugs, displayed, with a stock of family groceries, in a room in the Herald office until their building, one door south, could be completed.
Chris. Dengler, the first shoemaker, opened on Delaware street about the same time.
The history of the town company, although it extends beyond the municipal organization of Leavenworth, is fully treated as a portion of the early history. In the summer of 1855, the city of Leavenworth was incorporated by special act of the Territorial Legislature, sitting at Shawnee Mission, Johnson County. The supplementary act, passed shortly afterwards, named J. H. Day, W. H. Adams and Lewis N. Rees as Judges of Election, which took place September 3, 1855. The officers elected were Thomas T. Slocum, Mayor; Messrs. J. H. Day, Thomas H. Doyle, Frederick Emory, A. Fisher, William T. Marvin, Dr. G. J. Park and George W. Russell.
At the nominating convention, held at Rees' warehouse, Mr. Panton stated that the candidates were to be chosen irrespective of political opinions; that the meeting knew no Free-soil, no Slavery, but only such men as would best serve the interests of the city. That the choice was made on political grounds and that it savored too much of "Free-soilism," will be made sufficiently clear by subsequent events. The first meeting of the newly elected council was held September 11, 1855, in a room over J. L. Roundy's furniture store, on Main street, near Delaware. Dr. J. H. Day was chosen President, and Scott J. Anthony, Register or City Clerk. At this first meeting, Messrs, Fisher and Park were absent. The by-laws of the city of Muscatine, Iowa, for 1853, were adopted as the form of city government. Then William A. McDowell was chosen Marshal; William H. Bailey, treasurer; H. G. Weibling, Assessor; John I. Moore, Attorney; E. L. Berhoud, Surveyor, and M. L. Truesdell, Comptroller.
The Leavenworth Fire Association was organized by consent of the City Council, on the 17th of the month, and a charter granted for the formation of a company in October. The first city ordinance was also passed September 17, and entitled "Relating to games of chance and skill." The resignation of Mayor Slocum, on January 8, 1856, caused considerable excitement and some indignation. George Russell also resigned as Councilman, and the seat of J. H. McCelland became vacant because he persistently absented himself. They were all Free-state men, and found their duties too "onerous" in these Pro-slavery times. An election was held on January 21, 1856, and William E. Murphy, a strong Pro-slavery man was elected as Mayor. The two vacancies in the council were filled by the election of H. D. McMeekin and S. A. Craig. In September, 1856, William E. Murphy was re-elected Mayor.
September 13, 1856, the following officers were elected by the Council: William Perry, Register or Clerk; James P. Bird, Treasurer; William P. Shockley, City Marshal; Hugh M. Moore, City Attorney.
On March 25, 1857, Mr. Murphy resigned as Mayor (having been appointed Agent of the Pottawotomie Indians), and in April, Henry J. Adams was elected to fill the vacancy. Mr Adams was re-elected in September. Among those who have served two or more terms as Mayor of Leavenworth may be mentioned H. B. Denman, 1858, 1859, 1862; James L. McDowell, 1860, 1864; R. R. Anthony, 1863, 1872; Thomas Carney, 1865, 1866; John A. Halderman, 1867, 1870; W. M. Fortescue, 1879, 1881, 1882.
In November, 1855, the city purchased a building for a jail - the price paid, $600 - and E. K. Lowell, John Roundy and J. B. Davis were employed as special policemen. They are undoubtedly the germ of the present police force of Leavenworth. The father of the Fire Department has already been introduced.
It was about this time that the city has some trouble with City Comptroller Truesdell. In October, 1855, an ordinance was passed, defining his duties, and all that sort of thing. When the gentleman came to make a claim upon the city treasury, for services performed, he and the Council found that no "salary attached to the office." In February, Mr. Truesdell resigned, and g. J. Park was elected in his place. In March ex-Comptroller Truesdell was further punished by being dropped from the list of attorneys which the city had employed to defend the county-seat claims of Leavenworth.
The Council continued to meet in temporary quarters until the elegant Market House, corner of Fifth and Delaware streets, was erected in 1858. It then held its sessions in the upper portion of that building. The city offices were also there located. A portion of the lower part of the building is now occupied by the Fire Department.
In the spring of 1855 the population of Leavenworth was only about 500. By the fall of 1857 this figure has increased to 5,000, and in a year from that date to 10,000. In 1859 Leavenworth was placed in telegraphic communication with the East, its streets were graded, sidewalks laid, gas works constructed, etc., etc. The war, disastrous to so many cities, was a God-send of prosperity to Leavenworth. The constant activity at the military reservation was equal to the addition of a thriving village to the city's trade.
By the latter part of the war the population of Leavenworth itself had increased to 20,000. But the time came when the fostering effects of the war failed to be felt in Leavenworth, and then after 1870, both the municipal organization and a commercial city, she "progressed backwards." Having turned her attention of late years to manufacturing, however, she is again taking strong steps forward, and has become one of the most important centers on the Missouri River. The coal mines which have been opened in her immediate vicinity - rich in yield and good in quality - are assisting to make Leavenworth what she aims to become, and upon which she relies for her future - a great manufacturing city.
She is now a city of 19,000 people, beautifully located on the west bank of the Missouri, surrounded by a delightful country, favored by that charming natural park. Fort Leavenworth, adorned with tastefully constructed and comfortable homes, thick and solidly constructed business houses and upheld by an intelligent class of citizens. Although he population is not as large as at the close of the war, she has established herself on a foundation herself on a foundation of prosperity which is built of rock.
As indicating her financial condition as a municipal organization, it is learned that in June, 1882, her total liabilities were $376,722.09. The receipts for the year ending March 31, 1882, as shown by City Treasurer McKee's last annual report, were $138,908.47; disbursements $103,721.72; balance April 1, 1882, $63,979.46.
The city offices, located for a time in the court house building, were removed again to Market Hall in July, 1882. The present officers are as follows: Mayor, W. M. Fortsecue; City Attorney, E. Stillings; Treasurer, John McKee; Clerk, O. C. Beeler; Marshal, S. E. Ellis; Police Judge, L. M. Hacker; Engineer, E. Diefendorf; Street Commissioner, G. Geiger; Chief Engineer of Fire Department, P. Burns; President of the Council, A. A. Fenn.
As Leavenworth was the largest town in the State at the beginning of the Rebellion it is but natural that she should have raised more troops and furnished a longer array of names of persons who became prominent actors in the great drama. Probably its contiguity to Fort Leavenworth cause many Unionists of Missouri and other exposed localities to flee to Leavenworth for safety. Many of these people enlisted in the ranks of the Union army and helped to swell Leavenworth's enrollment of Union soldiers.
On the morning of April 18, 1861, the steamer "Sam Gaty," one of the regular St. Louis packers, landed at the Leavenworth wharf with a Confederate flag flying from her jack-staff. As soon as the obnoxious banner was noticed, a crowd collected with the determination to have it hauled down. The leaders in the movement were members of the Turner's society of the city. While they were bringing out a famous cannon named "Old Kickapoo" to enforce their demand, the flag was removed. But this did not satisfy the crowd, who regarded the display of a disunion emblem in Leavenworth as an insult to the city. So they went on board the "Gaty," and insisted that the flag be given up.
This was at once done, and the disunion emblem carried off in triumph. Subsequently, an American flag was procured, and the captain of the "Gaty" hoisted it with his own hands, thus atoning for the insult he had offered the community. While the affair was in progress, the steamer "Russell" came to the wharf, but before she was permitted to land, the people on shore compelled her to show her colors. She displayed the stars and stripes, and as it went to the head of the flag-staff, the crowd gave vent to their delight in shouts and cheers. These incidents show the popular sentiments in Leavenworth at the inception of the Rebellion.
As another evidence that Leavenworth's people were loyal from the very beginning of the Rebellion, the following is elated; On the 20th day of April, a rumor prevailed in the city that the rebels contemplated a raid from Parkville and Independence, Mo., for the capture of Fort Leavenworth. Mayor McDonald visited headquarters and tendered the services of 100 men (more if necessary) from the city militia company. Capt. Steele, then in command of the fort, replied that he was able to defend the fort against 5,000 assailants, but he accepted the Mayor's offer, and accordingly 100 volunteers from the city were stationed in the fort. The details were made from the Leavenworth Light Infantry, the Union Guards, and the Shields Guards. (The last named company was commanded by Capt. Daniel McCook, of the famous "fighting McCook family," who was killed during the war, after he attained the rank of Brevet Major General.) At the same time Capt. Steele gave Major McDowell an ample supply of arms, to be used in the defense of the city.
April 30, 1861, the services of the detachments of city volunteers were dispensed with by the arrival of regular troops, and the following letter of thanks was tendered to Captains McCook, Cozzens, and Clayton, by order of the Colonel commanding:
"Gentlemen: I am instructed by the Colonel commanding this post, to express to you, and through you to your patriotic soldiers, his thanks for the alacrity displayed by your respective commands in turning our in defense of the arsenal and public property at this place. The Colonel desires me to say that such acts are the best evidence of the readiness with which you will be found rallying in defense of your country's flag., whenever and wherever she may require your services. The arrival of the detachment of the Second Infantry renders your further services at this post unnecessary. You are, therefore, from this date most honorably discharged from duty at Leavenworth arsenal. In thus parting with you and your commands, the Colonel directs me again to thank you for the services you have performed, and to express to one and all of you his kindest wishes for your future happiness and welfare. I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant,
GEORGE B. RUGGLES.
"Second Lieut., Adjt. Second Inf., Post Adjt."
The three military companies of the city made rapid accessions to their memberships, and immediate steps were taken for the enlistment of several additional companies; in fact, Leavenworth seemed to be one vast camp, and nothing engaged the attention of the people but the suppression of the Rebellion. A detailed account of the part enacted by Leavenworth, in supplying men for the suppression of the Rebellion, may be found elsewhere. It may be stated here, however, that by the 20th day of May, 1861, eighteen companies were organized, and a majority of them were ready to march any where to fight for the old flag.
Annexed may be found the names of these companies, and also of their commanding officers: Home Guard - Thomas Carney; Leavenworth Fencibles, - J. B. Stockton; German Rifles - J. B. Huesgen; Leavenworth Guards - I. G. Losee; Emmett Guards - William Phillips; Steuben Guards - Gustavus Zesch; Delaware Guards - G. W. Gardner; Delaware Rifles - B. T. Twobly; Lincoln Rangers - William Freeland; Mounted Rifles - H. P. Johnson; Leavenworth Grays - A. H. Kent; Leavenworth Rifles - W. B. Smith; Phoenix Guards - Peter McFarland; Shields Guards - Daniel McCook; Leavenworth Light Infantry - Powell Clayton; Union Guards - Edward Cozzens; Lafayette Guards - David Block; Lane Rifles - T. J. Weed. A few months later many additional companies were enlisted.
The first Leavenworth company regularly mustered into the United States service was the Steuben Guards, Capt. Gustavus Zesch. The date of muster was May 27, 1861. The company was mustered in as Company I, of the First Kansas Infantry. This company and another Leavenworth company attached to the same regiment, participated in the battles of Wilson's Creek, Tuscumbia, Tallahatchie, Bayou Macon, Lake Providence, and other engagements. In the first battle above indicated, above sustained a heavy loss.
Among the many military organizations effected after May 20, 1861, the following are mentioned: Kickapoo Guards - Capt. Fred. Weilhouse; Capt. Black's Guards re-enlisted to serve three years in the first regiment of home guards; Lyon Guards - D. H. Bailey, Captain; Fourth Ward Guards - L. B. Wheat, Captain; The "Old Guard" - James M. Dickson, Captain; Third Ward Guards - Wm. Haller, Captain; Leavenworth Merchantile Guards - M. S. Adams, Captain; Leavenworth Light Cavalry - I. G. Losee, Captain. A cavalry company of Union Home Guards was organized in Stranger Township, with J. P. Salisbury as Captain.
Leavenworth's Military Leaders. - Powell Clayton began his military career as Captain of Company G, First Kansas Infantry, was brevetted Brigadier-General August 1, 1864, and afterwards became U. S. Senator for Arkansas, in which State he now resides.
Daniel McCook was first commissioned as Captain of the Shield Guards, performed military duty for a short time in Fort Leavenworth; was mustered in as Captain of Company H, First Kansas, his commission bearing date November 9, 1861. Resigned October 10, 1862. He was then appointed Brigadier-General by the President of the United States, and was killed during the Rebellion.
Hampton P. Johnson entered the service as Colonel of the Fifth Kansas Cavalry, and was killed in action at Morristown, Mo., September 17, 1861. His last words were - "Come on, boys." His body was brought to Leavenworth and buried with military honors, September 20, 1861.
Thomas Moonlight was mustered into the United States service as Captain of the Leavenworth Light Battery. The battery was named Company D, and attached to the Fourth Kansas Volunteers, a regiment composed of eight infantry, one battery and one cavalry companies. In 1862 the Light Battery was consolidated with the Lawrence company and became known as the First Kansas Battery. At the close of the war Col. Moonlight was in command of the Eleventh Kansas, and was brevetted Brigadier-General in February, 1865. He resides in Leavenworth. Previous to the war Col. Moonlight had seen service on the frontier, also in the Seminole war; he is a new Adjutant-General of the State of Kansas.
E. N. O. Clough was acting Provost Marshal at Leavenworth during the larger part of the war period; raised twenty-three hundred men for the Union cause, and received the appointment of Colonel, but not assigned to a regiment. He never received a dollar's pay for his manifold and arduous services, nor did he ask for it. Col. Clough resides in Leavenworth.
James Ketner entered the service as First Lieutenant of Company G, Second Kansas, promoted to the captaincy of Company K; was made Brevet Brigadier-General March 13, 1865. Now resides at Junction City, Kansas.
James L. Abernathy entered the service of the United States as Lieutenant Colonel of the Eighth Kansas Infantry, November 1, 1862, and resigned November 8, 1863. Resides in Leavenworth, and is senior member of the furniture house of Abernathy, Doughty & Hall.
George Hoyt entered the service November 11, 1861, as Second Lieutenant of Company K, Seventh Kansas Infantry; promoted to Captain May 7, 1862; resigned on account of disabilities, November 3, 1862; appointed Lieutenant-Colonel September 7, 1863; resigned July 19, 1865; appointed Brevet Brigadier-General March 13, 1865. Dead.
Edward H. Schneider was mustered into the service as Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Kansas Infantry, December 23, 1863, and resigned June 11, 1864; was appointed Brevet Brigadier-General March 13, 1865. Present whereabouts unknown.
T. J. Weed was commissioned as Major and Aid-de-camp January 29, 1862; discharged November 21, 1862; reappointed March 31, 1863; brevetted as Lieutenant-Colonel March 13, 1865. Resides in Leavenworth; insurance agent.
Champion Vaughn, Major and Aid-de-camp, appointed by the President November 21, 1862; mustered out April 11, 1865. Now dead.
Marcus J. Parrott, appointed by the President and commissioned as Captain August 3, 1861; resigned August 21, 1862; also served as member of Congress. Dead.
William Tholen, appointed by the President as A. G. O. with the rank of Captain, and mustered in March 8, 1863; discharged March 10, 1864. Dead.
Gen. John A. Halderman removed from Louisville to Leavenworth in 1854. Governor Reeder appointed him his private secretary. During the war he was Major of the First Kansas Volunteers, and Major-General of the northern division of the State forces. He has been Mayor of Leavenworth two terms, has been regent of the State University, a member of both Houses, and a prominent and popular man in whatever walk of life he has placed himself. At present he is Consul to Siam.
Cyrus L. Gorton was commissioned Captain and A. Q. M. by the President May 18, 1864, and was mustered out October 7, 1865. Dead.
A. C. Wilder, Captain, C. of S., commissioned August 7, 1861; resigned August 22, 1862; afterward member of Congress from the Leavenworth District. Dead.
M. S. Adams, Captain, C. of S., commissioned September 16, 1862; resigned January 10, 1863. Now in Silver Cliff, Colorado.
M. H. Insley, Captain, A. Q. M., commissioned by the President August 16, 1861, and promoted to the regular army, March 13, 1863. Resigned May 26, 1865. Now a banker in Leavenworth, member of the firm of Insley, Shire & Co.
George W. McLain was commissioned by the President as Captain and A. Q. M., October 20, 1862. He died in Leavenworth.
John Gould, Captain, C. of S. Commissioned November 26, 1862. Brevetted Major and mustered out October 9, 1865. Dead.
George W. Gardner, Captain C. of S. Commissioned February 19, 1863; resigned January 18, 1864. Living in Colorado.
H. Miles Moore joined Gen. Lane's command in June, 1861, being an aide sent to the Fifth Kansas Regiment; was with the command as Judge Advocate of the Brigade with rank of Major, until November, 1862; resigned and was commissioned by President Lincoln A. C. S., U. S. A., July 7, 1864; resigned February 20, 1865. Practicing lawyer in Leavenworth.
S. B. Davis, Major Medical Department. Commissioned February 19, 1863; brevetted Lieutenant-Colonel and mustered out October 7, 1865. In New Mexico.
Henry Foote, Major (paymaster). Commissioned June 1, 1861; resigned July 27, 1863. Gone West.
Henry J. Adams, Major (paymaster) Commissioned September 5, 1861; discharged August 1, 1864. Dead.
Hiram S. Sleeper, Major (paymaster). Commissioned February 19, 1863; resigned November 23, 1864. Wherabouts unknown.
George W. DeCosta, Major (paymaster). Commissioned April 21, 1864; brevetted Lieutenant-Colonel and mustered out February 16, 1866.
J. H. Gilpatrick, appointed First Lieutenant and Adjutant in First Regiment Home Guards (for Indian service), November 1, 1862; October 1, 1863, promoted to be Major of Second Kansas (colored); promoted to Lieutenant-Colonelcy November 9, 1864. Now practicing law in Leavenworth.
Charles R. Jennison, commissioned as Colonel of Seventh Kansas Cavalry October 28, 1861; on the seventeenth of October, 1863, was Colonel of the Fifteenth Kansas Cavalry; dismissed. Lives in Leavenworth.
Thomas Ewing, Jr., appointed Colonel of Eleventh Infantry September 15, 1862; promoted to Brigadier General March 13, 1863. Removed to Ohio and served as member of Congress.
Daniel R. Anthony, commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of Seventh Kansas Cavalry October 29, 1861; resigned September 3, 1862. Now editor and publisher of the Leavenworth Daily and Weekly Times and Postmaster.
William F. Clond, commissioned Colonel of the Fifteenth Kansas July 26, 1865; mustered out October 19, 1865. Now Collector of Internal Revenue at Carthage, Mo.
Samuel A. Drake, Lieutenant-Colonel Seventeenth Infantry; commissioned July 28, 1864; (date of muster out not known). Now resides in Boston.
Albert Lee, commissioned as Captain, August, 1861; May 17, 1862, made Colonel of the Seventh Regiment, and November 29, 1862, promoted to a Brigadier-Generalship. Now resides in New Orleans, La.
Suicide of Gen. Lane. - The tragic death of Gen. James H. Lane, at Fort Leavenworth, on July 11, 1866, created one of the greatest of excitements which stirred the State at any time during the war. Whatever may have been Gen. Lane's faults, it is a fact now quite generally recognized that without his vigorous arm and bold heart Kansas would have stood little chance of ever becoming a free State. The circumstances attending his sad end are thus given by a personal friend and admirer:
"In the latter part of June, 1868, he procured leave of absence from his arduous duties in the United States Senate and returned to his home in Kansas. He seemed in poor health and greatly depressed in spirits, but returned towards Washington, accompanied by his wife. Reaching St. Louis his symptoms were so alarming that his physicians expressed fear for his recovery, and the opinion that he was threatened with softening of the brain. Under this advice he returned to Kansas, Friday, June 29, and stopped with his brother-in-law, Capt' McCall, at the Government Farm, adjacent to Leavenworth. Here the symptoms of insanity increased. On Sunday, July 1, he expressed a desire to ride out, and Capt. McCall and Capt. Adams accompanied him in a carriage. As they stopped to open one of the farm gates he jumped out of the carriage and, exclaiming 'Good-by, gentlemen!' discharged a revolver in his mouth, the ball passing upward through the head and out almost at the center of the cranium. He was carried to the farm house and remained in a comatose condition, with spasmodic motions of the arm and right leg, until July 11, when he died. At one time he seemed to be recovering and recognized friends, even naming them in a whisper. His wonderful physical constitution sustained him for an unprecedented period, and attracted great attention from the medical fraternity.
"The aberration of mind has been attributed to various causes, but so little is known that we are hardly justified in expressing an opinion. The writer, who knew him well, saw him but a few days before he left the Senate for the last time and visited him two days preceding his suicide, is of the opinion that the direct cause of his insanity was the supposed desertion of his friends on account of his support of President Johnson's veto of the civil-rights bill, and threats of damaging exposure of his conduct in regard to Government contracts, in which he was alleged to have a personal interest."
Leavenworth is located at 39°18'30N, 94°55'22W (39.308248, -94.922740). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 60.9 km² (23.5 mi²). 60.9 km² (23.5 mi²) of it is land and 0.1 km² (0.04 mi²) of it (0.09%) is water.
Over the course of a year, temperatures range from an average low of about 16°F in January to an average high of nearly 90°F in July. The maximum temperature reaches 90°F an average of 44 days per year and reaches 100°F an average of 4 days per year. The minimum temperature falls below the freezing point (32°F) an average of 114 days per year. Typically the first fall freeze occurs between the last week of September and the first day of November, and the last spring freeze occurs between the last day of March and the final week of April.
The area receives nearly 41 inches of precipitation during an average year with the largest share being received in May and June—the April–June period averages 31 days of measurable precipitation. During a typical year the total amount of precipitation may be anywhere from 29 to 54 inches. There are on average 93 days of measurable precipitation per year. Winter snowfall averages about 10 inches, but the median is less than 3 inches. Measurable snowfall occurs an average of 4 days per year with at least an inch of snow being received on three of those days.
As of the census of 2000, there were 35,420 people, 12,035 households, and 8,219 families residing in the city. The population density was 581.7/km² (1,506.8/mi²). There were 12,936 housing units at an average density of 212.4/km² (550.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 76.77% White, 16.32% African American, 0.76% Native American, 1.48% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 1.72% from other races, and 2.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.08% of the population.
There were 12,035 households out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.7% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 34.8% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 112.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $40,681, and the median income for a family was $48,836. Males had a median income of $36,953 versus $24,235 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,785. About 6.8% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.1% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.
Neil Dougherty, basketball coach
Melissa Etheridge, musician
Ron Logan, former Executive Vice President of Walt Disney Entertainment
Wayne Simien, basketball player
Randy Sparks, singer, musician and founder of the band The "New Christy Minstrels"
Buffalo Bill Cody, soldier, buffalo hunter and wild west showman
Fred Harvey, prolific restaurateur
Wild Bill Hickok, soldier, lawman, gunfighter
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